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Phonemic Awareness

Phonics

Vocabulary

Fluency

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Phonemic Awareness:

The ability to hear, distinguish, and manipulate phonemes (smallest unit of sound). Skills within this strand are: blending, segmenting, deleting, rhyming, isolating, and recognizing same sounds. Phonemic awareness is solely auditory processing with no print introduced.

Listed below are the different components of Phonemic Awareness:

Phoneme Isolation

Students will be able to identfy the different phonemes in either the beginning, middle, or end of a spoken word.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

Phoneme Identity

Students will be able to identify the same sound in different words.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

Phoneme Categorization

Students will be able to recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has a different sound.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

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Phoneme Blending

Students will be able to listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, then combine the phonemes to form a word.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

Phoneme Segmentation

Students will be able to break a word into its separate sounds (phonemes), saying each sound as they demonstrate the different phonemes.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

Phoneme Deletion

Students will be able to make a new word by taking away (deleting) a phoneme from an existing word.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

Phoneme Addition

Students will be able to make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

Phoneme Substitution

Students will be able to make a new word by substituting a phoneme for another phoneme to create a new word.

List strategies that could be used:

  • Unavailable

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Phonics:

The relationship between the printed letters and the individual sounds (alphabetic principal). Skills within this strand are: onset and rime (word families), decoding, and encoding. Phonics instruction must be explicit and systematic.

List strategies that could be used:

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Vocabulary:

The words necessary to communicate ideas either through writing or oral communication. Students must have a working understanding of words in order to comprehend ideas expressed. Non-phonetic words and morphology are integral to vocabulary instruction. Vocabulary instruction is both direct and indirect (through read-alouds, independent reading, and usage in oral language).

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Fluency:

The ability to reading with appropriate speed (based on reading purpose and text) and prosody (intonation, emphasis, and pitch. Fluent readers read effortlessly with expression and automaticity.

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Comprehension:

The ability to meaningfully process written material. Successful readers monitor their own understanding and employ strategies to repair breakdowns as they occur (metacognition). Explicit instruction is essential for comprehension.

List strategies that could be used:

Pre-Reading Strategies

During Reading Strategies

Post Reading Strategies

 

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Hawai`i Department of Education
Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Student Support
Special Education Services Branch


© 2004-2005 Hawai`i Department of Education
Revised 1/27/2005